Why Do People Develop Parkinson’s Disease?

Why Do People Develop Parkinson’s Disease?

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurological disorder that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Despite extensive research, the precise causes of Parkinson’s remain elusive. However, scientists have identified several key factors that contribute to its development.

 One prominent factor is the loss of dopamine-producing cells in the brain, leading to the characteristic motor symptoms of Parkinson’s. Genetic mutations, exposure to certain toxins, and oxidative stress have also been implicated in the disease. 

This article aims to explore the complex interplay of these factors and shed light on the underlying mechanisms behind the development of Parkinson’s disease. 

What Is Parkinson’s Disease? 

Before delving into the causes of Parkinson’s, it is essential to understand what the disease entails. Parkinson’s is a chronic and progressive movement disorder that primarily affects older individuals, with the average age of onset being 60 years. It is characterized by motor symptoms, including tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slow movement), and postural instability. These symptoms are caused by the loss of dopamine-producing cells in a region of the brain called the substantia nigra, which is responsible for controlling movement. 

In addition to motor symptoms, Parkinson’s can also cause non-motor symptoms such as cognitive impairment, depression, and sleep disorders. The disease progresses slowly, with symptoms becoming more severe over time, ultimately leading to significant disability. 

Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease 

As mentioned earlier, Parkinson’s disease is primarily characterized by motor symptoms. These include:

  • Tremors: Involuntary shaking of the hands, arms, legs, jaw, or face.
  • Rigidity: Stiffness and resistance in the muscles, making movement difficult.
  • Bradykinesia: Slowness of movement and difficulty initiating voluntary movements.
  • Postural Instability: Impaired balance and coordination, leading to a higher risk of falls.

In addition to these motor symptoms, individuals with Parkinson’s may also experience non-motor symptoms such as:

  • Cognitive impairment: Changes in memory, thinking, and reasoning abilities.
  • Depression: Feelings of sadness and hopelessness that persist over time.
  • Sleep disorders: Difficulty falling or staying asleep, daytime sleepiness, and vivid dreams.

Why Do People Develop Parkinson’s Disease? 

As mentioned earlier, the exact causes of Parkinson’s disease are not yet fully understood. However, several key factors have been identified that may contribute to its development. These include:

Loss of Dopamine-Producing Cells 

The most apparent factor in the development of Parkinson’s is the loss of dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in controlling movement. When these cells die, the brain cannot produce enough dopamine, leading to the characteristic motor symptoms of Parkinson’s.

Genetic Mutations 

In rare cases, Parkinson’s disease can be inherited through genetic mutations. These mutations can cause abnormalities in specific proteins involved in the production and functioning of dopamine-producing cells. This can lead to an increased risk of developing Parkinson’s.

Environmental Factors 

Exposure to certain toxins, such as pesticides and heavy metals, has been linked to an increased risk of Parkinson’s disease. It is believed that these toxins can damage dopamine-producing cells in the brain, contributing to the development of the disease. Plus, living in rural areas and being exposed to healthy water has been associated with a higher incidence of Parkinson’s as well.

Oxidative Stress 

Oxidative stress is an imbalance between producing harmful free radicals and the body’s ability to neutralize them. This can cause damage to cells, including dopamine-producing cells in the brain, leading to Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, our cells become less efficient at repairing oxidative damage as we age, increasing the risk of developing Parkinson’s.

These are just a few of the factors that may contribute to the development of Parkinson’s disease. However, a combination of these or other yet unknown factors likely plays a role in the onset and progression of this complex disorder.

Exploring the Causes: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Parkinson’s Disease 

While the exact causes of Parkinson’s disease may remain unknown, research has shown that both genetic and environmental factors play a role in its development. Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition to developing the disease, while others may be more susceptible to exposure to certain toxins or other environmental influences. Further studies are needed to fully understand the intricate interplay between these influences and how they contribute to the development of Parkinson’s. 

Therefore, it is essential to continue pursuing research and understanding the underlying mechanisms behind Parkinson’s disease. This knowledge may lead to better treatment options and even a cure in the future. In the meantime, individuals with Parkinson’s and their loved ones can find support through various resources and organizations dedicated to improving the lives of those affected by this debilitating disorder. Let us continue to work towards finding answers and potentially improving the lives of millions worldwide. 

Prevention and Management of Parkinson’s Disease 

While there is currently no cure for Parkinson’s disease, there are steps individuals can take to reduce their risk of developing the disorder or manage their symptoms. These include:

  • Exercise: Physical activity has been shown to improve motor symptoms and overall quality of life in individuals with Parkinson’s.
  • Nutrition: A balanced diet with plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables may help reduce the risk of developing Parkinson’s.
  • Avoiding environmental toxins: Limiting exposure to pesticides, heavy metals, and other harmful substances can help protect against the development of Parkinson’s disease.
  • Managing stress: Stress has been linked to an increased risk of Parkinson’s, so finding healthy ways to cope with stress is crucial. This can include activities like yoga, meditation, or talking to a therapist.
  • Medication and therapy: There are various medications and therapies available that can help manage the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. These should be discussed with a healthcare professional.

In addition to these measures, individuals with Parkinson’s need to have a robust support system in place. This may include family, friends, and healthcare professionals who can provide emotional and physical support. Together, we can work towards managing and potentially preventing the onset of Parkinson’s disease.


What is the main cause of Parkinson’s disease? 

Parkinson’s disease is caused by the loss of dopamine-producing cells in the brain. Furthermore, genetic mutations, environmental factors, and oxidative stress may also contribute to its development. 

How do people with Parkinson’s feel? 

People with Parkinson’s may experience a wide range of symptoms, including tremors, stiffness, difficulty with movement and balance, and changes in mood or cognition. These symptoms can significantly impact their daily lives and overall well-being.

Who mostly gets Parkinson’s disease? 

Parkinson’s disease is most commonly diagnosed in individuals over the age of 60, but it can occur at any age. Men are also more likely to develop Parkinson’s than women.


In conclusion, the development of Parkinson’s disease is a multifaceted process influenced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. While the exact causes remain uncertain, the loss of dopamine-producing cells in the brain and genetic mutations in specific genes have been identified as key contributors. 

Furthermore, exposure to toxins and oxidative stress may also play a role in the development of this neurodegenerative disorder. Continued research and understanding of these factors are crucial in advancing our knowledge of Parkinson’s and developing effective prevention and treatment strategies for those affected by this debilitating condition.

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